Thursday, April 30, 2015

Z is for Zenith #atozchallenge

Zenith refers to to highest point in the imaginary celestial sphere. It is directly opposite the pull of gravity.
When the sun is directly overhead it is at its zenith.

Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Y is for Y Chromosomes #atozchallenge

The Y chromosome was discovered by Nettie Stevens at Bryn Mawr in 1905.

Only males have the Y chromosome. In humans, the Y chromosome represents only 1% of the total DNA in a male's cells.The Y chromosome contains 200 genes. 

Male smokers have between 1.5 and 2 times the risks of developing lung cancer than do females.

Males are also susceptible to defects in the X chromosome since males have only one X chromosome.. 

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

X is for X Chromosomes #atozchallenge

The human body is composed of 22 pairs of chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. The female has two X chromosomes while the male has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.

The female receives one X chromosome from her mother and one X chromosome from her paternal grandmother.

Males have only one X chromosome so they are likely to suffer from genetic X chromosome diseases.
The first X chromosome was isolated in 1890.

Sunday, April 26, 2015

W is for Watson and Crick...also "W" Music for Monday's Music Moves Me #atozchallenge, #MondaysMusicMovesMe

Who are Watson and Crick?
They are the scientist who discovered the DNA molecule. The DNA molecule is a double helix. The late showman, Merv Griffin described the DNA molecule as "looking like a ladder that's been in a bad fire."

Watson and Crick received the Nobel Prize for their discovery. 

DNA has revolutionized police work. Before DNA a drop of blood left at a crime scene could only reveal blood type. DNA can identify the specific individual that blood belongs to.


"W" Music! Link up with the gals from Monday's Music Moves Me below.

What are you doing the rest of your life? by Frank Sinatra

Walkin' in the Rain by The Ronettes

Where is Love? by Sammy Davis Jr.

Saturday, April 25, 2015

V is for Venus #atozchallenge

What is the second brightest object in the sky after the Moon?

Venus orbits the Sun between the planet Mercury and the planet Earth. It is the second brightest object after the Moon in the sky.
Its year is 224.7 days long.

Its atmosphere is 96% carbon dioxide. Its surface temperature 863 degrees F.

Its atmospheric pressure is 92 times greater than the Earth's atmospheric pressure.

Friday, April 24, 2015

U is for Universe #atozchallenge

What are the chances that we will find life elsewhere in the universe?
The Drake Equation attempts to answer that question. There are 200-400 million stars in the Milky Way Galaxy and there are hundreds of millions of galaxies in the universe.

N is the number of civilizations in the Milky Way Galaxy.
This number is derived by multiplying the following factors:

R is the rate of star formation
fp is the fraction of stars that created planets
ne is the number of Earth-like planets
fl is the fraction of planets that actually have life
fi is the fraction of planets that actually have intelligent life. 
fc is the fraction of planets that actually have interstellar communication.
L is the amount of time this civilization remains detectable

Drake got 12,000 when he solve this equation As Drakle was quoted as saying, "That's a lot of E.T.'s"

Thursday, April 23, 2015

T is for Nikola Tesla #atozchallenge

Who was Nikola Tesla?
Tesla (1856-1943) was an electrical engineer, mechanical engineer and futurist.
 He was best known for the design of the Alternating Current(AC) electrical supply system. His high-voltage, high-frequency designs were develped to produce wireless electric distribution and wireless lighting.

He was a competitor of Thomas Edison who was a proponent of Direct Current (DC).  Edison won the "War of Currents" between DC and AC currents.
After his death, he fell into obscurity. However, the FBI went to his hotel room and confiscated all of his drawings and papers.

His designed a death ray, which was a particle beam machine. Currently Israel is producing a particle beam which will destroy incoming weapons.

Wednesday, April 22, 2015

S is for satellite #atozchallenge

What is a satellite?

A satellite is a man made object which orbits the Earth. It is placed into orbit by means of a rocket ship.which lauches it in to orbit. The first satellite was called the Sputnik. It was launched into orbit by the former Soviet Union in 1957.
Eventually, the satellite slows down in its orbit around the Earth. It then succumbs to Earth's gravity and burns up in the atmosphere.

Today there are many kinds of satellites. The first two communications satellites were named Telstar.. There are also weather satellites and military satellites.

Tuesday, April 21, 2015

R is for Radium # atozchallenge

What is radium?

Radium is a silvery, white metallic substance which was discovered by Marie and Pierre Currie in 1898. Five days after they discovered radium, they reported it to the French Academy.

Radium has no commerical uses except in the field of Nuclear Medicine. In nuclear medicine, the isotope RA-223 is used to treat cases of  advanced prostate cancer.

At the time the Curries were working with radium. the dangers of radioactivity were not know. Marie Currie died of radiation poisoning.

Monday, April 20, 2015

Monday's Music...with the letter Q #MondaysMusicMovesMe, #atozchallenge

I wracked my brains over these! Hope you enjoy by letter Q songs for the A-Z challenge. Join in the fun at Xmas Dolly's place.

Queen of the Hop  by Bobby Darin

Quiet Nights by Andy Williams

Questions by the Moody Blues

Q is for quasar #tozchallenge

What is a quasar?

Quasars are very distant objects that emit emit electromagnetic energy and and located next to young massive galaxies which in turn are located next to massive black holes.

Quasars are very distant objects which are star like. They are powerful  and emit more energy than is found in the Milky Way Galaxy. The Milky Way Galaxy contains 200-400 billion stars.

Quasars are powered by the intake of matter into the massive black holes.

Quasars are found between 600 million and 28.85 billion light years away. .

Saturday, April 18, 2015

P is for precession #atozchallenge

What is precession?

The Earth revolves on its axis once every 24 hours which forms our day. However, the Earth's axis is not a fixed point in space. The axis wobbles like a gyroscope or a child's toy top. Therefore, it points to a different set of stars. The period of precession is 26,000 years. Precession is the result of the Moon's and the Sun's gravitational pull on the Earth.

The Pole Star is the northern hemisphere is Polaris in 2015 A.D.  In 3000 B.C., the Pole Star was Thuban in the constellation of Draco. In 14,000 A.D., the Pole Star will be Vega in the constellation of Lyra.

Friday, April 17, 2015

O is for Oxygen #atozchallenge

The Earth's atmosphere is composed of 79% nitrogen, 20.59% oxygen and the rest consists of rare gases.
Oxygen is a key part of human respiration. Oxygen binds with the four available sites on the hemoglobin molecule. Hemoglobin, which is part of human blood carries the oxygen to the cells. In the cells, the oxygen is metabolized and carbon dioxide is the product, along with water of that metabolism.

Oxygen is critical to the brain and oxygen deprivation can cause  brain damage.   

Thursday, April 16, 2015

N is for Sir Isaac Newton #atozchallenge

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was an English physicist and mathematician. He was the co-developer of calculus. He developed a mathematical description description of gravity. 

He wrote the book Principia Mathematica. He described the movement of comets, the tides, and developed a heliocentric model of the solar system which is accepted today.

Wednesday, April 15, 2015

M is for Michelangelo #atozchallenge

Michelangelo (1475-1564) 

Michelangelo was a sculptor, painter, and architect. He designed the Pieta and the David. He painted The Last Judgement on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel and the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. He also designed and built St. Peter's Basilica. 

Michelangelo had the uncanny ability to "see" the figure in a block of stone. For him, sculpturing was merely the art of removing the extraneous material. 

Tuesday, April 14, 2015

L is for levitate #atozchallenge

Can scientists cause objects to float in the air (levitate)?
In order for an object to levitate, an object must be lifted off of a surface, move in thin air to a different spot and remain afloat.
Scientists at the University of Japan have successfully caused objects to levitate by using ultrasonic sound waves. Heavier objects than electronic parts are levitated by increasing the sound waves.

Monday, April 13, 2015

K is for Kelvin Scale #atozchallenge

What is absolute zero?
The Kelvin Scale is a temperature scale at which absolute zero is a theoretical temperature. At absoluter zero all molecular movement ceases. The scale is designed so that one unit Kelvin is equal to one unit Celsius. All actual temperatures are above absolute zero. Water freezes at 273.16K and the boiling point of water is 373.16K.
The scale was developed by Lord Kelvin who was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1866. He also discovered the second law of thermodynamics which states that the quantity of energy in the universe is falling.

Sunday, April 12, 2015

#MondaysMusicMovesMe, #atozchallenge

It is another Monday and I am ready to follow along with some music for Monday's Music Moves Me which is hosted by Xmas Dolly. Join in the fun!

Also, have you been following me every day for the A to Z Blog Challenge? If not, will you please come by and leave me a comment?
Today I am working with the letter K, so all my songs start with it.

Thanks! ~Linda Cadose

Kentucky Rain by Elvis Presley

Keep the Faith, Baby by Lenny Howard

J is for joule #atozchallenge,

What is a joule?
A joule is a unit of electrical energy. It is defined as the amount of work done in maintaining an electrical current for one second of 1 ampere against a resistance of 1 ohm. 

I is for Igneous rock #atozchallenge,

What is igneous rock?
Igneous rock is one of the three main types of rock. The word igneous comes from the Latin word for fire. When magma or lava cools it becomes igneous rock. Magma comes from the earth's center. It can be seen on the surface as lava near active volcanoes such as in Volcano National Park on the big island of Hawaii.
The significance of igneous rocks are the following:
The composition of igneous rock give data about the Earth's mantle.
Their absolute age can be determined from dating methods
Their features can yield data about plate tectonics.
They contain important mineral deposits.

Thursday, April 9, 2015

H is for hydrogen, helium and The Hindenburg Disaster #atozchallenge

On May 6, 1937, the German airship, the Hindenburg ignited while trying to dock in Lakehurst, New Jersey. It became totally engulfed in flames and was destroyed. It was the end of the rigid airship era. Thirty six people perished in the disaster.There are many theories about the initial cause of ignition. The hydrogen hypothesis was widely accepted. After the disaster,. airships were filled with helium instead of hydrogen. Like hydrogen, helium was lighter than air. However, unlike hydrogen helium is not flammable.

Wednesday, April 8, 2015

G is for Gravity #atozchallenge

Gravity is the force which pulls a mass of matter towards the center of the Earth or other planet. The force of gravity is different for each planet. If a man weighs 150 lbs. on Earth, he will weigh differently on each planet in our solar system.

                Mercury        57lbs.
                Venus           136.5 lbs.
                Mars              57 lbs.
                Jupiter            351.0 lbs.
                Saturn            159 lbs.
                Uranus            138 lbs.
                Neptune           178.5
                Pluto                9 lbs.

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

F is for Fermi, Enrico #atozchallenge

Who was Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) ?
Enrico was an Italian physicist.who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1938. He is called the "father of the atomic bomb." He develop the first nuclear reactor.
When Fermi arrived in New York in 1939, he was immediately offered a post at Columbia University.Fermi was correct when he measured the energy of nuclear fission when uranium was bombared by neutrons.

Together with Einstein, Bohr, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Fermi worked on the Manhattan Project which became the atomic bomb.

Monday, April 6, 2015

E for Evolution #atozchallenge

What was the Scopes Monkey Trial?
Its official name was The State of Tennessee vs. John Thomas Scopes. John Scopes was a substitute who was found  guilty of teaching human evolution in a state funded school which was in violation of Tennessee's Butler Act. The trial was held in Butler, Tennessee in 1925. Scopes was found guilty and
fined $100.
The case was argued by three-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow, the famed criminal defense attorney.
The case pitted creationist who said that all knowledge came from God and was superior to human knowledge against Modernists who maintained that evolution was not inconsistent with God's teachings.
The Supreme Court set aside the conviction.

Saturday, April 4, 2015

D is for DNA #atozchallenge

What is DNA?
DNA is an abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. It determines the color of a person's eyes, hair color height and other characteristics.DNA is found with in the nucleus of each cell. There are many copies of DNA within each cell. 

The DNA is made of nucleotides. These nucleotides are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The arrangement of these nucleotides are called a sequence. The sequence determines a characteristic. Blue eyes are ATCGTT while brown eyes are ATCGCT.

There are many uses for DNA. Physicians use DNA to develop medications for cancer patients. The DNA is a particular patient  undergoes analysis and a medication is developed to treat that cancer's DNA.

Law enforcement uses DNA to solve crimes. A suspect's DNA is compared to the DNA in the National Database. If there is a match, it is used in court with the physical evidence to convict the suspect.

Friday, April 3, 2015

C is for Carbon #atozchallenge

What is the basis for all life on Earth?
Carbon is the basis for all life on Earth. Carbon is abundant on Earth. It easily bonds with oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. Carbon bonds easily because of its four valence electrons. It is capable of bonding with itself in long chains. Astrobiology asserts  that if life is found elsewhere in the universe it will be carbon based. Scientists who disagree with this view call it carbon chauvinism.

The chemicals which are necessary for life are all based on carbon compounds. They consists of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids.
Proteins are the foundations of living structures. 
The nucleic acids which contain genetic information.
Carbohydrates which store energy.
Lipids which also store energy.

Thursday, April 2, 2015

#atozchallenge/ B is for barometer.

B is for barometer.
A barometer is a device which measures atmospheric pressure. It is used by meteorologists to detect changes in pressure which are caused by weather. The two most common types are water-based barometers and mercury barometers. 

The concept that falling atmospheric pressure indicates stormy weather is the is the principle behind the water-based barometer. It is composed of a glass container filled halfway with water. A narrow tube is connected to the water body and ends above the water level which is open to the air. When the pressure drops the water level in the tube rises higher than the water level in the body. When the pressure rises, the water level in the tube falls below the water level in the body.

A mercury barometer is composed of a glass tube which is 84 centimeters long, which is closed on one end. An open mercury-filled body is at the base. The mercury's weight creates a vacuum at the top of the tube. When the weight of the mercury tube equals the atmospheric pressure of the mercury-filled body, High pressure causes mercury to rise in the tube lower pressure cause the mercury to fall in the tube

Wednesday, April 1, 2015

A is for Asteroids


Asteroids which are also called space rocks orbit the sun in the asteroid belt which is located between Mars and Jupiter. Most asteroids are small. The total mass of the asteroids in the asteroid belt is less than half the total mass of Earth's moon. There are asteroids which are located outside of the asteroid belt.

 The largest asteroid is named Ceres which is 583 miles wide. The smallest asteroid is named 1991 BA and is 20 miles wide. Some asteroids are spherical while others are irregularly shaped. 

If an asteroids strikes the Earth, it is called a meteorite. There are two types of meteorites: those which are composed of iron and those which are composed of stone. Iron meteorites are 91% iron, 8.5% nickel and 0.6% cobalt.  Stony meteorites 36% oxygen, 26% iron, 18% silicon, 14% magnesium, 1.5% aluminum, 1.4% nickel and 1.3% calcium.

If they are large meteorites can be dangerous. A meteorite which was 65 miles wide exploded over the Siberia section of Russia injuring 1200 people.